Dictionary Of Biology - The New Penguin by Michael Thain, Michael Hickman, Michael Abercrombie, C. J.

By Michael Thain, Michael Hickman, Michael Abercrombie, C. J. J. Hickman, N. I. Johnson, Raymond Turvey

The Penguin Dictionary of Biology defines a few 6,000 phrases with regards to this wealthy, advanced, and regularly increasing subject—from amino acids, micro organism, and the cellphone cycle to X-ray diffraction, Ychromosomes, and zygotes. lengthy tested because the definitive single-volume resource, the dictionary has now been broadly up to date for its 11th version. With accelerated encyclopedic entries to give an explanation for the main the most important suggestions, it explores the very most modern discoveries and advancements, containing greater than four hundred new entries to take account of the most recent considering on genetics, human body structure, ailment, and mobile biology. All key botanical and zoological strategies in addition to the middle vocabulary of biochemistry, immunology, evolutionary idea, and ecology are outlined extensive, making this the best reference for college kids, lecturers, pros, and novice biologists.

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Such reactions form the basis of hum&al and of many cell-mediated immune responses. See AGG LUTININ, COMPLEMENT,PRECIPITIN,IMMUNITY. ANT~GENK VARIATION. Ability of some’ pathogens, notably viruses, bacteria and protozoa, to change their coat antigens during infection. Trypanosomes and some stages‘ in the malarial life-cycle achieve it, making the search for vaccines to some devastating human diseases very difficult. ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELL (APC). Few antigens bind directly to antigen-sensitive T - CELL s or B-c ELLS but are generally ‘presented’ to these lymphocytes on the &u-faces of other cells, the antigenpresenting cells.

Arteries. See AORTA, AORTA, DORSAL. Major vertebrate (and cephalochordate) artery through which blood passes to much of body, supplying arteries to ,most major organs. In sharks a single dorsal aorta collects oxygenated . blood from the gills, but in bony fish paired dorsal aortae on either side in the head region perform this task before uniting as a single median vessel. Oxygenated blood then passes backwards to the body; but in fish too blood flowing up through the third AOR TI c k R c H tends to pass anteriorly through the aorta(e) rather than posteriorly (see CAROTID ARTERY).

Diagram of IgG structure; rectangles are protein subunits and hypervariable regjons are shown as dark lines. Antigen-binding sites are within dotted lines; other domains exist for complement fixation, for binding to F, receptors, neutrophiisand K cells. See A N n BOD Y for details. - resulting’in the spread of ANTIBIOTIC inwhatresembles an ARMS RACE. ANTIBODY (IYMUNOGLO~ULIN). Class of glycoprotein produced by vertebrate white blood cells (B - CELL s), after maturation into plasma cells. Their main function is to bind highly selectively to foreign molecules (antigens), which then clump together (agglutinate) so that phagocytic white cells can engulf them.

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