Dictionary of Archaeology by Ian Shaw

By Ian Shaw

This dictionary presents these learning or operating in archaeology with a whole connection with the sphere.

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J. M. T. Shaw, P. Sinclair, B. Andah and A. : The archaeology of Africa: food, metals and towns (London and New York, 1993). Dating bibliography The Journal of African History has produced some invaluable surveys summarizing new radiocarbon dates from West Africa and commenting on their significance. Authors, dates, volumes and page numbers are as follows: F. Willett, 12 (1971), 339–70; C. Flight 14 (1973), 531–54; M. J. McIntosh, 17 (1976), 161–95; D. Calvocoressi and N. G. K. J. McIntosh, 27 (1986), 413–42.

2. Earliest settlement. In northern Chad an AUSTRALOPITHECUS mandible and upper premolar were discovered by a team under the direction of Michel Brunet in 1995–6 at a locality 45 km east of Koro Toro (see AFRICA 1). These finds were associated with apparently undisturbed fauna in a geological context which suggests that this was a lakeside environment. 5 million years ago. The hominid remains were at first compared to A. Afarensis, but are now recognized as a separate species ‘Australopithecus bahrelghazali’.

Holocene microlithic assemblages continued to be made in many parts of southern Africa until the nineteenth century, though with changes in the details of scraper design and the kinds of backed microliths produced. A general trend in many areas is for the frequency of adzes (widely interpreted as woodworking implements) to increase during the last 4000 years, a pattern linked in the Thukela Basin of KwaZulu-Natal and elsewhere to increased use of underground plant foods, for the exploitation of which wooden digging sticks would have been needed.

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