Diagnostic Ultrasound and Animal Reproduction by C. M. Ligtvoet, N. Bom, W. J. Gussenhoven (auth.), M. A. M.

By C. M. Ligtvoet, N. Bom, W. J. Gussenhoven (auth.), M. A. M. Taverne, A. H. Willemse (eds.)

The use of ultrasonic imaging innovations for diagnostic reasons in veteri­ nary medication and animal technology has lagged some distance in the back of their use in human drugs. within the region of household animal copy, diagnostic ultrasono­ graphy has a comparatively brief heritage. reviews on B-mode scanning first seemed as overdue as 1969, while Stouffer and associates used it for counting foetal numbers in overdue gestation sheep. After Lindahl had re-evaluated the potential for two-dimensional ultrasonography for being pregnant prognosis in sheep in 1976, result of the 1st huge scale field-trials through Fowler and Wilkins on predicting foetal numbers through the first 1/2 gestation in sheep have been released as lately as 1980. during this yr additionally the 1st paper, by means of Palmer and associates, on ultrasonic scanning of the uterus and ovaries within the mare seemed. the development of diagnostics which was once completed by way of the applying of this system is illustrated through its current regimen use in medical equine perform and sheep breeding. in addition to offe­ ring a correct early being pregnant prognosis in species resembling the pony, cow, sheep, goat, pig and puppy, ultrasonography allows the visualization of ovarian and uterine buildings for the id of either physiological and pathological stipulations. during this method it replaces or supplementations the extra universal diagnostic innovations utilized by the final practitioner to date. Ultrasonography has additionally opened a number of new strains of study for clini­ cians and study workers.

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It makes a more systematic scan of the ovary possible, because one hand manipulates the ovary, the other the transducer. The ovary is retracted, via the rectum, to a position caudal to the cervix and placed against the left or right side of the vaginal wall; the other hand places the transducer, via the vagina, against the ovary. Both the grip of the transducer and the vulva and perineum have to be cleaned thoroughly before trans-vaginal ultrasonography. OVARLANSTRUCTURES Follicles Follicle growth takes place during the whole oestrous cycle.

The high echogenity of the fluids resulting from endometritis helps distinguishing them from physiologically occurring fluid collections such as oestrus secretions or the embryonic fluid of the early conceptus which are much less echogenic (Fissore et al. 1986). The echogenic patterns displayed by the products of inflammation range from small bright spots in mild cases to a "snow-storm effect" or, in severe cases, to almost bright white images on the screen. Real-time-scanning sometimes revealed turbulences within the larger collections of fluid.

The typical echo genic properties of the fluids found in cases of endometritis may be useful for differential diagnosis. Endometrial secretions contain numerous particles of varying echogenity. The echogenic properties of the image can range from scattered bright flakes to high echogenity, brighter than that of the uterine wall. However, it is important to realize that the echogenity of the amniotic fluid also increases during the second and final third of pregnancy. Due to an increase in cellular content, initially flaky, later snow-stonn effects are produced.

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