By Jeremy M. V. Rayner (auth.), Richard F. Johnston (eds.)
Volume five of this sequence maintains its insurance of at present energetic re seek fields in ornithology. simply because an editor can by no means be a disin terested observer of his or her personal editorial efforts, any declare for su periority of this quantity isn't really with no clash of curiosity. nonetheless, quantity five has definite advantages that even a father or mother should still recognize, and that i locate the present chapters no longer simply well timed and authoritative yet compelling of their call for for a reader's cognizance. Wolfgang and Roswitha Wiltschko offer a perceptive assessment of magnetic orientation in birds, a section devoted to Fritz Merkel, the pioneer in stories of magnetic orientation. Sergei Kharitonov and Doug las Siegel-Causey are interested in the behavioral ecology of seabird coloniality, emphasizing their box studies within the USSR and the U.S.. Ted Miller examines the applying of stories of chook habit to comparative biology, pursuing the interface of habit and evolutionary biology adumbrated by means of Konrad Lorenz within the Thirties. Jeremy Raynor provides us a precis of the paintings over the last decade on poultry flight, which isn't, via turns, as advanced or so simple as we had previously believed. Carrol Henderson describes fresh increase ments in nongame poultry conservation, in line with his pioneering paintings within the kingdom of Minnesota. Alan Kamil discusses optimum experimental layout for examine in ornithology, a box within which experimental paintings is usually tough to pursue.
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Additional resources for Current Ornithology
Magpie ~~~~ ~.. ~ pigeon ~ swift •. lapwing blackbird , , sparrow t FIGURE 11. The diversity of wing and tail design in a range of flying birds drawn to scale, as seen from below with wings outstretched; scale bar 2 m. On the left wing of each bird the approximate positions of the humerus , ulna, and metacarpals are shown. From Herzog (1968) with permission of Gustav Fischer Verlag. 28 JEREMY M. V. 1 10 body mass (kg) FIGURE 12. 955). (A) Measurements for individual species. , hummingbirds (Trochilidae, Apodiformes); +, Passeriformes.
The same is also the case in bats (U. M. Norberg and Rayner, 1987). The scaling for hummingbirds (Apodidae) differs considerably from that for other flying birds (see also Greenewalt, 1962, 1975); the reasons for this remain poorly understood but are related to the extensive hovering of nectarivorous hummingbirds, to mechanical specializations in the wing, and to the mechanism of force generation (Rayner, 1979b). Owing to these mechanical differences, I do not discuss the group in detail and generally when referring to flying birds exclude hummingbirds.
Other gait parameters such as wingbeat amplitude are assumed to be independent of scale under dynamic similarity. This simple theory predicts variation of wingbeat frequency, flight speed, and mechanical flight power with size. 8 (Rayner, 1982); predictions, so also do the scalings of metabolic power. 1). 1); however, although the correlation is weak, the scaling index of measured flight speeds against body mass does not differ significantly from 1/6 (Rayner, unpublished results). As a method for predicting performance in an individual bird, scaling is unreliable and of limited validity, and these examples demonstrate the fallacy of isometric scaling; nonetheless, von Helmholtz's theory can provide a useful background for consideration of the diversity of avian wing form.