By Geoffrey D. Rubin MD, Neil M. Rofsky MD
Written via world-renowned specialists in either CT angiography and MR angiography, this landmark paintings is the 1st complete textual content on vascular imaging utilizing CT and MR. It offers a balanced view of the functions of those modalities and useful directions for acquiring and reading photos. greater than 2,200 illustrations supplement the text.
Chapters co-authored via CT and MR gurus disguise imaging of all coronary and non-coronary arteries and veins. each one bankruptcy information symptoms, imaging techniques, common and variation anatomy, illnesses, surgical administration, and pitfalls. The authors examine the application of CT and MR in particular medical events and talk about the position of traditional angiography and ultrasound the place appropriate.
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Extra info for CT and MR Angiography: Comprehensive Vascular Assessment
The width of the point spread function indicates the spatial resolution of the system: The smaller it is, the better the resolution. It is commonly used in the z-direction and is then called section width or effective section thickness (see also Fig. 1-14). In the xy-plane, it is probably the best way of comparing spatial resolution as well, but so far, it is not yet commonly provided by the manufacturers. An approximate relation to the MTF is provided in Table 1-2. 55 mm Note: Relation between spatial resolution given in line pairs per cm (at 4% MTF) and full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the point spread function (numbers in mm).
This requires low pitch factors or increasing the reconstructed section width by at least 30% over the chosen collimation (Fig. 1-19). For this reason, z-FFS yields the biggest advantages whenever very thin sections have to be reconstructed or high pitch factors have to be used. Finally, it has to be noted that the number of focal spots plays no role for the calculation of pitch factors or other crucial scanner characteristics. A scanner with 32 active detector rows and 2 focal spots will therefore behave like a 32-detector-row scanner and not like a 64-detector- row scanner when it comes to pitch, scanning speed, or even detector width.
It has been used for years to increase the number of projections within the imaging plane (xy-plane). Recently, an additional movement along the z-axis (z-FFS) was introduced that allows for increasing the number of projections also in the z-direction. The idea behind the technology is as follows. For image reconstruction, it is irrelevant whether projections from the tube to the detector or in the opposite direction, from the detector to the tube, are considered. 2 mm** 32 ϫ 1 mm 16 ϫ 2 mm 16-detector-row 64-detector-row *Thinner collimation obtained by collimating the innermost two detector rows.