By Kenneth Smith

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**Sample text**

That is, the Ievels are accidentally degenerate, as first recognized by Fermi, in zero-order approximation when the interactions between the modes are neglected. When the interaction between them is included as a perturbation, the wave functions are mixed and the resulting pair of mixed Ievels are repelled (see Fig. 4 ). That is, in first-order perturbation theory one of the mixed Ievels is pushed up and the other is pushed down, so that the level Separation is greater than expected. In view of the strong mixing of the Zeroapproximation functions in first order, the observed levels should not, strictly speaking, be labeled in the zero-order nomenclature.

We can define 1 I=L V JL I 0 z dz from Fig. 8. When Eq. 66) is substituted into the second term on the right-hand side, and the integration is performed, we have , I,_,= = x(1- R) aL 2x(R -1) lnR having used Eq. 66) again, which is substituted into Eq. 69b) The I/ Tc term in Eq. 64a) [see also Eq. 46)] describes (di/ dt) 1055 , the rate of change of the cavity-field intensity due to the output (mirror) coupling and loss processes L. 69c) Chapter 2 46 Sec. 69d) which is called the laser-cavity lifetime.

Consequently, T(vv)(T, Tb) is defined as in Eq. 110) and Eq. 116) becomes dEa _ Ea- Ea(T) T(VT)(T) dt Ea- Ea(T, Tb) T(vv)(T, Tb) where Ea(T, Tb) is defined in Eq. 108). 118) 2 Vibrational Kinetics In Chapter 1 we derived rate equations describing energy-transfer processes during collisions between vibrationally excited molecules. In this chapter we shall apply the rate-equation approach to describe the vibrational kinetics of the C0 2 : N2: He gas mixture and thus obtain a theoretical model of C0 2 gas Iasers.