By F. David Peat

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**Example text**

X, y, z and τ, accessible to empirical tests? This is deﬁnitely not possible. The following facts show and demonstrate, respectively, that there is no possibility for that. We deﬁnitely cannot see, hear, smell, or taste single elements x, y, z and τ of space and time, that is, the basic elements of space and time, characterized by x, y, z and τ, are not accessible to our senses. This is independent of the character of space (space-time): Whether it is absolute or non-absolute. Also measuring instruments for the experimental determination of the space-time points x, y, z, and τ are not known and even unthinkable.

They may even exist when space is not ﬁlled with matter. In other words, the empty space represented in Fig. 5c is a physically real entity, at least from Newton’s point of view. Its existence is necessary because only on the basis of the above mentioned features of space-time Newton was able to construct a reasonable theory of motion. Newton’s space is an ad hoc idea and does not withstand any critical scientiﬁc analysis. Before we deepen this point, let us explain the signiﬁcance of this question.

However, after Hubble’s discovery of an expanding universe, Einstein abandoned and dismissed the concept of a cosmological constant as his “greatest blunder”. , the universe expands faster and faster, rather than slowing down as normally expected when we assume that the cosmos is governed by usual matter and gravitation. However, an accelerated expansion needs some sort of antigravitational force, ﬁrst introduced by Einstein by means of the cosmological constant . In other words, due to the cosmic acceleration there is a need of a nonzero cosmological constant yet.