# Cogeneration: A User's Guide by D. Flin

By D. Flin

If there are words we now have come to understand rather well, they're 'environmental know-how' and 'credit crunch'. the realm is seeking how one can reduce the emission of CO2 into the ambience, with out incurring significant bills in doing so. through expanding efficiencies as much as approximately ninety in line with cent utilizing well-established and mature applied sciences, cogeneration represents the best choice for non permanent discounts in CO2 emission degrees. the facility to maximize profit streams through benefiting from cost fluctuations within the rate of power provide, and making sure the power to provide strength despite what's taking place at the grid, are strong incentives to take advantage of cogeneration. The collapses of the grid networks in North the US and Italy in 2003 have been a stark reminder of what can occur if there's over-reliance at the grid community. Cogeneration is smart economically, environmentally and operationally.

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Additional info for Cogeneration: A User's Guide

Example text

As far as electrical Who can use cogeneration? 41 generation considerations are concerned, the cogeneration unit should meet the entire base load of the site, so that all the generated electricity can be used on the site. It is usually the case that minimising the amount of electricity exported to the grid is the most cost-effective strategy for generating electricity from a cogeneration plant. Generating less electricity than the base-load requirements involves importing electricity from the grid, often at premium rates because the time of greatest demand from a site usually coincides with the time of greatest demand on the grid.

To help encourage the development of highly efficient CHP projects, the EPA and the DoE present Energy Star CHP Awards to projects that are in commercial operation, operating within the emission limits stipulated in their permits, and have a minimum of 12 months and 5 000 hours of measured operating data. Thermal energy must comprise 20–90 per cent of the total system output. Winners of the 2005 Energy Star CHP Awards include ● ● ● ● ● Hexion Speciality Chemicals CHP Project, Moreau Industrial Park of South Glens Falls, NY The CHP Project at the University of Texas at Austin Arrow Linen CHP Project, Brooklyn, NY Rego Park Nursing Home, Flushing, NY Hermany Farms CHP Project, Bronx, NY Cogeneration currently produces about 10 per cent of the electricity generated in the USA.

The anticipated annual gas consumption, which is a function of the cogeneration plant’s average fuel consumption and the anticipated number of running hours, must be identified. The anticipated maximum rate of gas consumption must be defined. Normally, gas turbines will consume more fuel, and generate more power, at lower ambient air temperatures, so the value must reflect the maximum hourly consumption. The stipulated supply pressure should reflect the requirements of the prime mover. It is always more cost-effective to have gas supplied at as high a pressure as possible, since pressure-boosting equipment such as a fuel gas compressor consumes significant quantities of electricity.