By John Gillingham
This can be the 1st large-scale historic research of the serious first degree of eu integration, the construction of the eu Coal and metal group (ECSC). John Gillingham discusses the thirty yr Franco-German fight for heavy mastery in Western Europe, describes the desires and schemes of Jean Monnet, who designed the heavy pool, unearths the yankee imaginative and prescient that encouraged his paintings, and discloses how his transatlantic companions used their nice authority to guarantee its final touch. Gillingham additionally lays naked the working mechanisms of the coal-steel pool, exhibiting that opposite to the hopes of Monnet and his supporters, the ECSC restored instead of reformed the ecu financial system, leaving as a legacy no longer a detrustified undefined, yet one nonetheless ruled by means of the enormous manufacturers of the Ruhr.
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Extra resources for Coal, Steel, and the Rebirth of Europe, 1945-1955: The Germans and French from Ruhr Conflict to Economic Community
6? On French markets too, successful cartelization would depend in part on the strength of ties to German producers. The structure of the 1926 International Steel Cartel (Internationale Rohstahlgemeinschaft) represented a compromise between the Ruhr's ambitions and economic reality: After long and wearying discussion its delegates had to give up the effort to control pricing and concede that the cartel's responsibilities should be limited to regulating market share. Even this presented serious difficulties, since some of the participating nations did not have domestic cartels in all product lines.
P. 123; see also Henry W. Ehrmann, Organized Business in France (Princeton NJ, 1957), p. 18. 26 Coal, steel, and the rebirth of Europe each founder-member receiving a crude steel quota, divisible by product on a prorated basis, that covered sales both at home and abroad. To enforce respect for the quotas, a scheme of penalties and compensations for excess, or under-, production was to apply. 54 percent. Penalties were set at four dollars per ton, compensations at two dollars per ton. 6^ The International Steel Cartel was set up for motives similar to those underlying the formation of other producer ententes and the directors of Western European coal and steel undeniably played no more than a modest role in the events leading to Locarno.
An investigation conducted by a special committee of the Chamber, while concluding somewhat limply that public opinion had been misled by propaganda, ridiculed France's "directing circles" for culpable ignorance of German realities. A sequel to it laid blame at the feet of the French government of occupation, the High Commissariat, which it depicted as being oversized, incompetent, and staffed with interpreters ignorant of German as well as political agents afraid to report the truth. *6 The pro-settlement parties east of the Rhine had a comparatively difficult time.