By Thomas Sowell
This reconsideration of the macroeconomics, microeconomics, technique, and social philosophy of the classical economists has been a small gem at the heritage of financial concept, written in a manner obtainable to scholars, whereas having a lot to coach students. The reissue of this booklet 20 years after its unique ebook is a tribute to the long-lasting relevance of the questions raised through the formative interval of economics and to the ability with which the writer analyzes them.
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Productivity measured in monetary terms converges. Labour conditions in different branches tend to become similar. This is the basis of the flexibility of a capitalist Profitable Capitalism and Rising Mass Incomes 19 economy and the constitution of the working class, and the basis of the political and social empowerment of labour. Productivity as measured in prices converges within economic areas where labour is mobile and this is because price relations between products change. With homogeneous productivities, small changes in technical productivity or demand lead to rapid adaptation of supply, as factors of production flow easily between different branches and enterprises.
Pooling innovativeness does. The increasing productivity becomes possible because there are many more human beings who are capable of imagination and innovation than the ones directly necessary for innovation in the daily struggle for survival at the early levels of development of productive forces. This mine of productivity increasing contributions can be tapped if we succeed in mechanising the tedious tasks. This shift from non-innovative to innovative labour for a larger number is made possible by equality of distribution (Allen 2009: 903).
In cases of full employment in the economy, those branches with below average rate of growth of productivity lose workers to other branches. At a lower level of production, they can defend their employment by raising their wages and by increasing the prices of their products. Productivity measured in monetary terms converges. Labour conditions in different branches tend to become similar. This is the basis of the flexibility of a capitalist Profitable Capitalism and Rising Mass Incomes 19 economy and the constitution of the working class, and the basis of the political and social empowerment of labour.