Case studies in infectious disease by Peter Lydyard, Michael Cole, John Holton, Will Irving, Nino

By Peter Lydyard, Michael Cole, John Holton, Will Irving, Nino Porakishvili, Pradhib Venkatesan, Kate Ward

Provides 40 case stories that includes the most very important human infectious illnesses around the globe. compatible for college kids of microbiology and drugs, this e-book describes the average background of an infection from aspect of access of the pathogen via pathogenesis, medical presentation, prognosis and treatment.

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Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne disease in North America and Europe. ● There are three genospecies within the Borrelia burgdorferi complex (B. burgdorferi sensu lato), B. burgdorferi (sensu stricto), B. garinii, and B. afzelii. ● Strains found in North America belong to B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, whereas the other two species are found in Europe and Asia. ● The bacteria are maintained in an enzootic cycle involving hard-bodied ticks belonging to the Ixodes ricinus species complex and a wide range of reservoir vertebrate hosts.

In February 2002 the vaccine was withdrawn from the market, reportedly because of poor sales. LYMErix™ contained lipidated recombinant OspA from B. burgdorferi sensu stricto. The vaccine was targeted for use in persons aged 15–70 years at high risk of exposure to infected ticks. Interestingly, OspA is not expressed by spirochetes in infected humans, but the vaccine worked because anti-OspA IgG antibodies in human blood were taken up by the infected tick during feeding and killed the borreliae in the tick hindgut, preventing transmission.

This phase may last for up to a month. Unless treated, over two-thirds of infected individuals manifest neurological and cardiac symptoms. These manifestations may occur as early as a month or as late as 2 years or more post-infection. Neurological sequelae include meningitis, encephalitis, and peripheral nerve neuropathy, particularly seventh cranial nerve palsy (Bell’s palsy). Cardiac sequelae include heart block, myopericarditis, and congestive heart failure. Neurological and cardiac sequelae may be followed by arthralgia and arthritis.

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