By Abul K. Abbas MBBS, Andrew H. H. Lichtman MD PhD, Shiv Pillai MBBS PhD
Understand all of the crucial techniques in immunology with Basic Immunology: features and issues of the Immune System! This concise, centred textual content provide you with an up-to-date, obtainable creation to the workings of the human immune approach.
- Efficiently grasp the immunology details you wish through clinically centred content material, logically prepared by way of mechanism.
- Apply what you have got discovered to real-world events by referencing the appendix of scientific situations.
- Enhance your learning with assistance from various full-color illustrations and worthwhile tables, in addition to precis bins, overview questions, and a thesaurus of immunology terms.
- Study immunology anywhere! on-line entry to www.StudentConsult.com opens the door to an better ebook and ancillary components!
- Visualize complicated immunology innovations with a totally up-to-date artwork program.
- Test your knowledge. New PowerPoint evaluation slides additional to www.StudentConsult.com are perfect for examine sessions.
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Additional info for Basic Immunology: Functions and Disorders of the Immune System, 4e
Activating receptors on NK cells have sigÂ�naling subunits that contain immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs. (ITAMs) in their cytoplasmic tails. ITAMs, which also are present in subunits of lymphocyte antigen receptor–associated signaling molecules, become phosphorylated on tyrosine residues when the receptors recognize their activating ligands. The phosphorylated ITAMs bind and promote the activation of cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinases, and these enzymes phosphorylate, and thereby activate, other substrates in several different downstream signal transduction pathways, eventually leading to cytotoxic granule exocytosis and production of IFN-γ.
Many other receptor types are involved in innate immune responses to microbes (see Fig. 2–2). Several cytoplasmic receptors recognize viral nucleic acids or bacterial peptides; for example, the RIG-like receptor (RLR) family recognizes viral RNA. A cell surface receptor expressed mainly on phagocytes recognizes peptides that begin with N-formylmethionine, which is specific to bacterial proteins, and promotes the migration as well as the antimicrobial activities of the phagocytes. Lectin (carbohydraterecognizing) receptors are specific for fungal glycans (these receptors are called dectins) and for terminal mannose residues (called mannose receptors); they are involved in the phagocytosis of fungi and bacteria and in inflammatory responses to these pathogens.
Monocytes are less abundant than neutrophils, numbering 500 to 1000 per mL of blood (Fig. 2–7, B). They also ingest microbes in the blood and in tissues. Monocytes that enter extravascular tissues differentiate into cells called macÂ�rophages, which, unlike neutrophils, survive in these sites for long periods. Blood monocytes and tissue macrophages are two stages of the same cell lineage, which often is called the mononuclear phagocyte system (Fig. 2–8). ) Resident macrophages are found in healthy connective tissue and all organs in the body.