By Jack Barrett
Barrett J. Atomic constitution and periodicity (Royal Society of Chemistry, 2002)(ISBN 0854046577)
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This is unfortunate, since it may give rise to the impression that electrons are spinning on their own axes much as the Moon spins on its axis with a motion which is independent of its orbital motion around the Earth. The uncertainty principle indicates that observation of the position of an electron is impossible, so that the visualization of an electron spinning around its own axis must be left to the imagination! However, to take into account the intrinsic energy of an electron, the value of s is taken to be %.
This is the observation that in the presence of a magnetic field the atomic spectrum of an element has more lines than in the absence of the field. 1 ~ Q If the value of I is 3, what are the permitted values for in,? I 1 A The permitted values for m, are 3, 2, 1, 0, -1, -2 and -3. ' Q State whether the following sets of quantum number values are I valid descriptions of atomic orbitals, and explain why some are invalid. 2/ 0 -1 -2 A (a) is invalid because the value of I should be less than that of n; (b) is valid; (c) is invalid because the value of nzl must be within the range +I to -1.
These may be stated in the following way: "Infilling a set of degenerate orbitals: ( i ) the number of wpaired electrons is maximized, and (ii) such unpaired electrons will possess plarullelspins. ’ being merely alphabetical. 6. Box/arrow diagrams, boxes representing orbitals and arrows representing electrons with their spins, are only approximate descriptions of the electron arrangements in atoms. 7. The lowest diagram expresses the Hund’s rules outcome, and the others represent the two excited states, one with electrons in separate orbitals to minimize interelectronic repulsion and the other with the electrons pairing up in one orbital with opposed spins.