By Betty N. Gordon, Carolyn S. Schroeder
Univ. of Kansas, Kansas urban. provides an outline of fit improvement from infancy to preadolescence. utilizing a step by step approach, textual content covers the psychopathology of hazards and protecting components, the transparent formula of remedies and ambitions, and guidance for perform. includes case reports. Written for clinicians and others operating with teenagers. prior variation: c1991.
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Extra info for Assessment and Treatment of Childhood Problems
2000) confirmed that the more parents of clinic-referred children perceived their children as being oppositional and antisocial, the more likely they were to use physical punishment. It is possible that frustrated parents resort to physical punishment because they feel that other methods of discipline have not worked to curb their children’s aversive behavior. However, the use of physical punishment may exacerbate a child’s aggressive and antisocial behavior. Mahoney et al. (2000) argue that their results are consistent with the concept of coercive cycles that develop and escalate in the interaction between parents and children with conduct problems (Patterson, 1982; Patterson, Reid, & Dishion, 1992); this suggests that causation is probably bidirectional.
Physical punishment was most prevalent among African American parents, those living in the South, and parents of boys. These data were replicated by Mahoney, Donnelly, Lewis, and Maynard (2000), who also found that parents of clinic-referred children were more likely to use corporal punishment (spank with bare hand; slap arm, leg, or hand; hit on bottom with hard object; pinch; shake; slap face, head, or ears) and two to three times more likely to use severe physical aggression (hit body with hard object; throw or knock down; hit with fist or kick hard; beat up; grab neck and choke; threaten with knife or gun) with their children than were parents of nonreferred children.
Therefore, the association between self-esteem and other factors is somewhat circular. Campbell (1990) states that adults have many opportunities to influence children’s self-esteem. They can reward, punish, or ignore their children’s successful experiences. They can also expose their children to mildly stressful experiences and help them to cope, or they can shield them from every adversity, denying them the experience of mastery and consequent self-confidence. Peer Relations The tasks of social development are complex for school-age children (Davies, 1999).