Alternative Weltordnungsmodelle?: IB-Diskurse in China by Nele Noesselt

By Nele Noesselt

Die Jahre 1989 / 1991 markieren eine Zasur in der politischen und politikw- senschaftlichen Weltbetrachtung, die mit den Ansatzen finish of heritage (Fukuyama) vs. go back of heritage (Kagan) nur unzureichend beschrieben ware. Zwar bedeutete die Auflosung der Sowjetunion zugleich das Ende der bipolaren Blockkonfrontation auf internationaler Ebene, die anfangliche Annahme aber, dass der Kapitalismus in Verbindung mit demokratisch verfassten Systemstr- turen unweigerlich zu einem grundlegenden und universellen Orientierungs- dell avancieren wurde, ist mittlerweile doch etwas relativiert worden. Die mit Blick auf die Ereignisse von 1989 / 1991 konzipierte Demokratisierungs- und Transformationstheorie richtet ihren Fokus auf den Niedergang sozialistischer Systemstrukturen. Staaten-Akteure wie die VR China hingegen, die eine Tra- formation ihres politischen platforms nach dem westlichen Muster zuruckweisen, schreiben dieser Zasur eine hiervon abweichende Bedeutung zu, indem sie - stelle einer Transformation auf nationaler und subsystemischer Ebene die M- lichkeit einer Neuordnung der aus den Zeiten des Kalten Krieges datierenden Strukturen und Regelwerke des internationalen structures thematisieren."

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Extra info for Alternative Weltordnungsmodelle?: IB-Diskurse in China

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Häckel 2000:153). Eine hieran anknüpfende mögliche Modifikation des Ideologiebegriffs für die Analyse der modernen und gegenwärtigen chinesischen Außenpolitik hat Steven Levine in den 90er Jahren vorgestellt. Der von ihm skizzierte Ideologiebegriff funktioniert dabei als abstraktes, zunächst wertfreies politikwissenschaftliches Analysekonzept. Levine hält grundsätzlich an dem Begriff der Ideologie fest, unterscheidet jedoch zwei Erscheinungsformen – formelle und informelle Ideologie – im chinesischen Kontext: A formal ideology consists of a fairly small number of interrelated central propositions that constitute an orthodoxy that is defined as much, or even more, by defence of the central doctrines against the heresy of large or small deviations as it is by confrontation with major competing ideologies (…) An informal ideology is the complex of cultural values, preferences, prejudices, predispositions, habits, and unstated but widely shared propositions about reality that condition the way in which political actors behave (…) In this sense, ideology is obviously not a system of thought that political actors consciously choose, but something bestowed upon them in the form of historical-cultural inheritance (Levine 1994:33-34).

Häckel 2000:153). Eine hieran anknüpfende mögliche Modifikation des Ideologiebegriffs für die Analyse der modernen und gegenwärtigen chinesischen Außenpolitik hat Steven Levine in den 90er Jahren vorgestellt. Der von ihm skizzierte Ideologiebegriff funktioniert dabei als abstraktes, zunächst wertfreies politikwissenschaftliches Analysekonzept. Levine hält grundsätzlich an dem Begriff der Ideologie fest, unterscheidet jedoch zwei Erscheinungsformen – formelle und informelle Ideologie – im chinesischen Kontext: A formal ideology consists of a fairly small number of interrelated central propositions that constitute an orthodoxy that is defined as much, or even more, by defence of the central doctrines against the heresy of large or small deviations as it is by confrontation with major competing ideologies (…) An informal ideology is the complex of cultural values, preferences, prejudices, predispositions, habits, and unstated but widely shared propositions about reality that condition the way in which political actors behave (…) In this sense, ideology is obviously not a system of thought that political actors consciously choose, but something bestowed upon them in the form of historical-cultural inheritance (Levine 1994:33-34).

Dabei zeigt sich, dass die derzeit vorliegenden IB-Bausteine eine hybride Mischform strategischer und theoretischer Überlegungen darstellen. Feldstrukturen II. 1. Periodisierung Um eine Aussage über den gegenwärtigen Stand der IB-Forschung in China treffen zu können, ist es zunächst erforderlich, die historische Entwicklung der Disziplin nachzuzeichnen und den Zwischenstand festzuhalten. Aus den chronologischen Betrachtungen allein jedoch lässt sich noch nicht die Frage beantworten, inwiefern mit der chinesischen IB-Forschung nun eine eigenständige wissenschaftliche Disziplin vorliegt.

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