Akathisia and Restless Legs by Perminder Sachdev

By Perminder Sachdev

This quantity offers the 1st accomplished account of the clinical and scientific facets of akathisia and similar syndromes akin to stressed legs syndrome (RLS), different kinds of motor restlessness, and neuroleptic-induced dysphoria. the focus is on drug-induced akathisia and its a number of subtypes. the writer explores its dating to the restlessness as a result of different neurological problems, provides a brand new synthesis of the pathophysiological mechanisms of akathisia, and gives arguments for brand new operational standards for the learn analysis of drug-induced akathisia. ideas for the size of akathisia also are mentioned, as are remedy techniques. The e-book may be rather worthwhile for psychiatrists, neurologists, and different physicians looking a greater knowing of those disabling syndromes.

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2. Fidgeting a. Fidgeting Tendency Questionnaire (Mehrabian and Friedman, 1986). Type: Behavioural scale. Subject area: Fidgeting tendency. Administration: Self-rating. Item selection: Descriptions of fidgeting behaviour drawn from the literature. Number of items: 40. Item definitions: Rated on a 9-point scale of agreement with the item (-4 = very strong disagreement, 0 = neither agreement or disagreement, +4 = very strong disagreement). Psychometric validity: Factor analysis revealed two factors - 'localized self-stimulation' and 'restless gross body movements and object manipulation'.

A closer examination of the Cohen-Mansfield et al data suggests that a proportion of their patients (14%) had more agitation during the evening shift, although there was a subgroup of 17% that was worse dur- 32 Introduction ing the day. In another study, Gallagher-Thomson et al (1992) reported sundowning behaviours in 11 out of 35 Alzheimer's disease subjects and found that these were related to increased perceived stress in the caregivers. Restlessness of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder Descriptions of hyperactivity in children go back to ancient literature, but it was not until the nineteenth century that an attempt was made to characterize it as a disorder.

Behaviours such as rubbing body parts, playing with objects in the hands, scratching oneself, making clucking or smacking noises, swinging legs back and forth, biting or sucking objects, etc are described as part of fidgeting. 4 lists the behaviours included by Mehrabian and Friedman (1986) in their questionnaire measuring a fidgeting tendency. A factor analysis of these items yielded two factors: localized self-stimulation (rubbing fingers and hands, biting the lip, pulling on the ear, etc) and object manipulation (picking at loose threads in furniture or clothes, moving ring around finger, etc).

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