Actinomycetes in Biotechnology by Michael Goodfellow (Eds.)

By Michael Goodfellow (Eds.)

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Antibiotics 13285 A l and A 2 : Novel cepham and penem metabolites from a Streptomyces species. Journal of the Chemical Society Chemical Communications 1985,1513-1514. A o k i , H . , Hosoda, J. and Imanaka, H. (1977). Screening of new and novel /Mactam antibiotics. Japanese Journal of Antibiotics 30, Supplement S207-S217. A s a n o , K. and Kawamoto, I. (1986). Catellatospora, a new genus of the Actinomycetales. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology 361, 512-517. , Lacey, J. and Goodfellow, M.

This segment is believed to code for an enzyme which biosynthesizes A-factor from a precursor commonly present in Streptomyces species. D. ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE Antibiotic-producing actinomycetes generally possess the target of their own antibiotics but have self-resistance mechanisms for them to survive in the presence of the antibiotics they produce (Demain, 1974; Vining, 1979). Consequently, self-resistance has been regarded as an essential factor for antibiotic production. In fact, high-yielding antibiotic strains have been obtained by generating and selecting clones or mutants with higher levels of self-resistance than that of the parental strains (Katagiri, 1954; Unowsky and Hoppe, 1978; Crameri and Davies, 1986).

The two specific effects most commonly observed in this study were inhibition of LPS-mediated B-lymphocyte stimulation and a mitogenic effect which did not influence the response of the cells to any of the three test mitogens. Seventy-five per cent of all broths tested exhibited a non-specific reduction in mitogenic response. This system exhibited specific T cell proliferation in the presence of cyclosporin A (at concentrations which left B cells unaffected). , 1982). This result confirms that the screen should be able to select agents with activities similar to cyclosporin A and to establish activity profiles characteristic of a number of other antibiotic types.

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